Early papers by Gregor v. Bochmann - Historical aspects
Paper describing the results of a physical experiment done at CERN
(Geneva), in the context of which I did my master project. I was responsible
for programming a PDP-8 computer in assembler for real-time data acquisition
Some of the papers resulting from my PhD work with Prof. Margolis
at McGill University. I did many scientific calculations in Fortran, PL-1
and also used an symbolic formula manipulation system.
- [Bail 68] J. Bailey et al., Precision measurement of the anomalous magnetic
moment of the muon, Physics Letters 28B, pp. 287-290, (1968).
My first work as a post-doctoral researcher was on neural networks
(although this term was not yet invented) in collaboration with Prof. Armstrong.
[Arms 74] W. W. Armstrong and G. v. Bochmann, Properties of Boolean
functions with a tree decomposition, BIT, 14 (1974), pp. 1-13.
Some contribution to "structured programming"
[Boch 73c] G. v. Bochmann, Multiple exits from a loop without the goto,
Comm. ACM. 16, pp. 443-444 (1973).
A seminal paper which introduces the notion of a predetermined evaluation
order for semantic attributes. This work was inspired by a paper by Knuth
introducing the concept of attribute grammars in 1968.
[Boch 76c] G. v. Bochmann, Semantic evaluation from left to right,
Comm. ACM 19, pp. 55-62 (1976).
My first work on the specification and analysis of communication
protocols appeared in 1975. I used the FSM model (the 1978 paper has been
much cited) and also a programming language oriented description model
involving assertions and invariants. The combination of these approaches
was described in 1977 under the title "unified method", which later has
been called "extended FSM model". Much of my later work in this area uses
this description framework.
- [Boch 69c] G. v. Bochmann and B. Margolis, Multi-step contributions
to particle production in nuclei, Nuclear Physics B14, pp. 609-618
- [Boch 72b] G. v. Bochmann, Photoreactions on nuclei and vector meson
dominance breaking, Physical Review D5, pp. 266-268, (1972).
Around 1980, the work on Formal Description Techniques (FDT) for
communication protocols and services started in the ISO standardization
committee on Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). There was much hope in
industry and academia that formal protocol specifications could be used
to obtain communication systems with less errors and interworking problems.
Research work concentrated on the development of languages, such as SDL,
Estelle and LOTOS, and their use for semi-automatic protocol verification,
implementation and testing. Our research team was in the forefront of these
developments. The papers below include the first review on formal protocol
description methods, the description of one of the first compilers of an
FDT that generates implementation code, and two early papers describing
the use of FDTs for the development of protocol standards. Later we were
also among the first to propose FDT extensions for describing performance
- [Boch 75d] G. v. Bochmann, Communication protocols and error recovery
procedures, Proceedings ACM Symposium on Interprocess Communication,
SIGOPS Review, 9, No.3, 45-50 (1975).
- [Boch 78i] G. v. Bochmann, Finite State Description of Communication
Protocols, Computer Networks, Vol. 2 (1978), pp. 361-372. Note: This paper was first presented at the Computer Network Protocols Symposium,
organized by Prof. Danthine in Liège, Belgium, February 1978, which
was probably the first conference concentrating on the topic of communication
- [Boch 75c] G. v. Bochmann, Logical verification and implementation of
protocols, Proc. 4th Data Communication Symposium (ACM-IEEE), pp. 7-15
to 7-20, Oct. 1975, reprinted in "Communication Protocol Modeling", edited
by C. Sunshine, Artech House Publ., 1981.
- [Boch 77c] G. v. Bochmann and J. Gecsei, A unified method for the specification
and verification of protocols, Proc. IFIP Congress 1977, pp. 229-234.
In the early eighties, the issue of conformance testing for OSI protocols
came up and there was much interest in methods for automatic test development.
Our research group took a leading role in this area, starting with the
presentation of the first paper on protocol testing using FSM models at
the second International Workshop on Protocol Specification, Testing and
Verification (now joint with the FORTE conference), which was held in 1982.
Later we introduced new concepts, such as the synchronization problems,
test development based on extended FSM models (Sarikaya's PhD thesis),
automatic test result analysis and verification of test verdicts, support
tools for ASN.1 data types, and testing of non-deterministic systems (more
recent references on these topics are also included under the headings
- [Boch 80a] G. v. Bochmann and C. A. Sunshine, Formal methods in communication
protocol design, (invited paper) IEEE Tr. COM-28, No. 4 (April 1980),
pp. 624-631, reprinted in "Communication Protocol Modeling", edited by
C. Sunshine, Artech House Publ., 1981.
- [Boch 87h] G. v. Bochmann, G. Gerber and J.-M. Serre, Semiautomatic
implementation of communication protocols, IEEE Tr. on SE, Vol. SE-13,
No. 9, September 1987, pp. 989-1000, (reprinted in "Automatic Implementation
and Conformance Testing of OSI Protocols", IEEE, edited by D.P.Sidhu, 1989).
- [Boch 81a] G. v. Bochmann, The use of formal description techniques
for OSI protocols, Proc. National Telecom. Conf., New Orleans, (1981),
pp. F8.6.1 to F8.6.6.
- [Boch 84j] G. v. Bochmann, E. Cerny, G. Gerber, R. Dssouli, M. Maksud,
B. H. Phan, B. Sarikaya and J. M. Serre, Use of formal specifications
for protocol design, implementation and testing, Proc. IFIP Workshop
on Protocol Specification, Testing and Verification, Sky Top, NY, USA,
1984, Y. Yemini et al. eds., North Holland, pp.137-146.
- [Boch 88b] G. v. Bochmann and J. Vaucher, Adding Performance Aspects
to Specification Languages, IFIP Symposium on Protocol Specification,
Testing and Verification, Atlantic City, June 1988, pp.19-31.
- [Rico 91] N. Rico and G. v. Bochmann, Performance description and analysis
for distributed systems using a variant of LOTOS, Proc. IFIP Symposium
on Protocol Specification, Testing and Verification, Stockholm, June 1991,
I learned about temporal logic during my sabbatical year at Stanford
University in 1980. The first paper below on hardware specification has
been much cited. Later, we considered the introduction of the temporal
logic concept of fairness within the FDT LOTOS. A distributed implementation
of the LOTOS rendezvous mechanism, including fairness, was also developed.
- Conformance testing based on FSM models and application to OSI transport
- [Sari 82] B. Sarikaya and G. v. Bochmann, Some experience with
test sequence generation for protocols, Proc. 2-nd Int. Workshop on
Protocol Specification, Testing and Verification, North Holland, 1982,
- [Boch 83f] G. v. Bochmann, E. Cerny,
M. Maksud and B. Sarikaya, Testing of Transport Protocol Implementations,
Proc. CIPS Conference, Ottawa, 1983, pp.123-129.
- Identification of the synchronization problem
- [Sari 84] B. Sarikaya and G. v. Bochmann, Synchronization and specification
issues in protocol testing, IEEE Trans. on Comm., COM-32, No.4 (April
1984), pp. 389-395; russian translation: Express Information (overview
of western publications), Information Transfer, 1985, no. 28.
- Test development based on extended FSM models
- [Sari 85d] B. Sarikaya and G. v. Bochmann, Obtaining normal form specifications
for protocols, Proc. COMNET'85, IFIP, Computer Network Usage: Recent
Experiences, North Holland, 1985, pp. 601-613.
- [Sari 87a] B. Sarikaya, G. v. Bochmann and E. Cerny, A Test Design Methodology
for Protocol Testing, IEEE Trans. on Soft. Eng., Vol.13, no.5, May
1987, pp. 518-531.
- Automatic test result analysis and verification of test verdicts
- [Boch 89j] G. v. Bochmann and O. B. Bellal, Test result analysis with
respect to formal specifications, Proc. 2-nd Int. Workshop on Protocol
Test Systems, Berlin, Oct. 1989, pp.272-294.
- [Boch 90j] G. v. Bochmann, D. Desbiens, M. Dubuc, D. Ouimet and F. Saba, Test
result analysis and validation of test verdicts, Proc. Workshop on
Protocol Test Systems (IFIP),1990, North-Holland.
- Support tools for ASN.1 data types
- [Boch 86b] G. v. Bochmann, M. Deslauriers and S. Bessette, Application
Layer Protocol Testing and ASN1 Support Tools, Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM
Conf., Houston, Dec. 1986, pp. 767-771.
- Testing of non-deterministic systems with transition fault coverage
- [Fuji 91c] S. Fujiwara and G. v. Bochmann, Testing non-deterministic
state machines with fault coverage, Proc. IFIP Int. Workshop on Protocol
Test Systems, Netherlands, October 1991, pp.(III-257)-(III-275).
In 1992, the Canadian Institute for Telecommunication Research (CITR,
a federal network of centers of excellence) invited me to organize a Major
Project in the area of distributed multimedia applications. This was the
starting point for my work in the area of quality of service management.
The CITR project was later led by Dr. Wong from the University of Waterloo.
- [Boch 82d] G. v. Bochmann, Hardware specification with temporal logic:
An example, IEEE Trans. Computers C-31, No.3 (March 1982), pp.223-231.
- [Wu 91] C. Wu and G. v. Bochmann, Fairness in LOTOS, in the proceedings
of the International Conference on Formal Description Techniques (FORTE'91),
K.R. Parker and G.A. Rose eds, North-Holland, Sydney, Australia, 1991,
- [Wu 93c] C. Wu, G. v. Bochmann and M. Yao, Fairness of N-party synchronization
and its implementation in a distributed environment, Proc. Int. Workshop
on Distributed Algorithms (WDAG'93), LNCS 725, Springer Verlag, 1993, pp.
This page was prepared by G.v.
Bochmann in July 1999.